First aid is the initial assistance given to someone who has been injured or has suddenly fallen ill. It can often mean the difference between life and death. Knowing the right first aid techniques and procedures is crucial in emergency situations. There are several common questions and misconceptions about first aid that people may have. In this article, we will address the top 10 first aid questions and answers you need to know. These questions cover a range of topics, from treating cuts and bruises to performing CPR. We will provide clear and concise answers to each of these questions to ensure that you are well prepared in the event of an emergency. Our aim is to equip you with the knowledge and skills necessary to handle any emergency situation with confidence. With the right first aid training and knowledge, you can make a significant difference in saving someone’s life. Whether you are at home, work, or out in public, having an understanding of first aid is essential. So, whether you’re a beginner or just looking to refresh your knowledge, read on to find out the top 10 first aid questions and answers you need to know. Let’s get started!
Question 1: Describe the steps to take when performing chest compressions on an adult who is unconscious and not breathing.
Performing chest compressions on an adult who is unconscious and not breathing is a critical step in the process of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Here are the steps to take when performing chest compressions on an adult:
Assess the situation: Before performing any CPR, check the scene for safety and ensure that the person is unresponsive and not breathing normally. If they are not breathing normally, call for emergency medical services (EMS) immediately.
Position the person: Place the person on a firm, flat surface. Kneel beside the person and place the heel of one hand in the center of the person’s chest, between the nipples.
Position your hands: Place your other hand on top of your first hand, interlacing your fingers.
Begin compressions: Using your body weight (not just your arms), press down on the person’s chest about 2 inches deep at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute. Allow the chest to fully recoil after each compression.
Check for breathing: After every 30 compressions, open the person’s airway and give two breaths. Look for the chest to rise with each breath.
Repeat the cycle: Continue with cycles of 30 compressions and two breaths until help arrives or the person begins to breathe normally.
Remember, performing chest compressions is a critical step in saving someone’s life. It is important to call for emergency medical services immediately and continue performing chest compressions until help arrives.
Question 2: Explain the difference between a sprain and a strain and provide examples of each.
Both sprains and strains are common injuries that can occur in the muscles and joints of the body. Here are the differences between sprains and strains and examples of each:
Sprain: A sprain is an injury that occurs to a ligament, which is a strong band of tissue that connects bones to each other and helps stabilize joints. Sprains usually happen when a joint is forced to move in an unnatural direction or when it is subjected to excessive force.
Examples of sprains include:
Twisting your ankle while running on an uneven surface.
Falling and twisting your wrist or ankle.
Landing on your shoulder and causing it to stretch beyond its normal range of motion.
Strain: A strain is an injury that occurs to a muscle or tendon, which is the tissue that connects muscles to bones. Strains usually happen when a muscle or tendon is stretched beyond its normal range of motion or when it is subjected to excessive force.
Examples of strains include:
Overstretching your hamstring while running.
Pulling a muscle in your back while lifting a heavy object.
Straining your rotator cuff while throwing a ball.
In summary, while sprains involve damage to ligaments and strains involve damage to muscles or tendons. Both injuries can cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion. Treatment for both may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), and in some cases, physical therapy or surgery may be needed.
Question 3: List the signs and symptoms of a heat stroke and describe the immediate steps that should be taken to treat it.
Heat stroke is a medical emergency that can occur when the body’s internal temperature regulation system fails due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures or intense physical activity in hot weather. Here are the signs and symptoms of heat stroke and the immediate steps that should be taken to treat it:
Signs and Symptoms of Heat Stroke:
Body temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher
Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating
Rapid, shallow breathing
Dizziness or lightheadedness
Nausea or vomiting
Confusion, agitation, or disorientation
Seizures or convulsions
Loss of consciousness
Immediate Steps to Treat Heat Stroke:
Call for emergency medical services (EMS) immediately. Heat stroke is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment.
Move the person to a cooler place, such as an air-conditioned building or a shaded area. Remove any excess clothing to help cool the person down.
Use cool water or ice packs to cool the person’s body. Apply a cold, wet cloth to the person’s neck, armpits, and groin area to help lower their body temperature.
Encourage the person to drink cool fluids, such as water or sports drinks, if they are conscious and able to swallow.
Monitor the person’s vital signs, such as their body temperature, heart rate, and breathing, until EMS arrives.
Remember, heat stroke is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Early recognition and treatment can help prevent complications and save lives.
Question 4: What is the difference between an open wound and a closed wound? Provide examples of each and explain the appropriate first aid treatment for each.
An open wound and a closed wound are two different types of injuries that can occur on the skin or underlying tissues of the body. Here are the differences between an open wound and a closed wound, along with examples of each and appropriate first aid treatment:
An open wound is an injury that causes a break in the skin or underlying tissues, leading to bleeding and exposure of the underlying tissues. Open wounds can be further classified into different types based on the nature of the injury, such as a laceration, puncture, or abrasion.
Examples of open wounds include:
A deep cut from a knife or broken glass
A puncture wound from a nail or animal bite
An abrasion or scrape from a fall or road rash
Appropriate First Aid Treatment for Open Wounds:
Control bleeding by applying direct pressure with a clean cloth or bandage.
Clean the wound with soap and water and cover it with a sterile dressing.
If bleeding continues, apply additional pressure or use a tourniquet as a last resort.
Seek medical attention if the wound is deep, bleeding heavily, or shows signs of infection.
A closed wound is an injury that occurs beneath the skin or in deeper tissues, without breaking the skin’s surface. Closed wounds are typically caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow or impact, and can result in bruising, swelling, and pain.
Examples of closed wounds include:
Bruising from a fall or a punch
Hematoma or swelling from a sports injury or car accident
Crush injuries from a heavy object or machinery
Appropriate First Aid Treatment for Closed Wounds:
Apply ice or a cold compress to the affected area to reduce swelling and pain.
Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart to help reduce swelling.
Take over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, as directed.
Seek medical attention if the pain or swelling worsens or if there are signs of internal bleeding or other serious injury.
In summary, open wounds involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues and require immediate attention to control bleeding and prevent infection, while closed wounds occur beneath the skin and may cause bruising, swelling, and pain. Treatment for closed wounds involves reducing swelling and pain and seeking medical attention if necessary.
Question 5: Discuss the symptoms and appropriate first aid treatment for a person experiencing an asthma attack.
Asthma is a respiratory condition that can cause breathing difficulties and can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergies, exercise, and environmental pollutants. Here are the symptoms and appropriate first aid treatment for a person experiencing an asthma attack:
Symptoms of an Asthma Attack:
Wheezing or whistling sound when breathing
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Chest tightness or pain
Coughing, especially at night or early morning
Rapid breathing or shallow breathing
Difficulty speaking or catching one’s breath
Blue lips or fingernails (in severe cases)
Appropriate First Aid Treatment for an Asthma Attack:
Stay calm and help the person sit upright. Do not leave them alone.
Have the person use their prescribed inhaler. Encourage them to take deep breaths and hold each breath for 5-10 seconds.
If the person does not have an inhaler or if their symptoms do not improve, call for emergency medical services (EMS) immediately.
Loosen any tight clothing, especially around the person’s neck and chest, to help them breathe more easily.
Assist the person in taking slow, deep breaths. This can help them relax and reduce symptoms.
If the person becomes unresponsive, perform CPR if necessary and wait for EMS to arrive.
Remember, asthma attacks can be life-threatening and require prompt attention. Early recognition and treatment can help prevent complications and save lives. If the person’s symptoms do not improve or worsen despite treatment, seek emergency medical attention immediately.
Question 6: What are the steps to follow when treating a person who has ingested a poisonous substance? Include when to induce vomiting and when not to.
Treating a person who has ingested a poisonous substance can be a life-threatening emergency. Here are the steps to follow:
Call for emergency medical services (EMS) immediately. Provide as much information as possible about the substance ingested, the amount, and the person’s age, weight, and symptoms.
Remove the source of the poison if it is still present and is safe to do so, such as a toxic chemical or contaminated food.
If the person is conscious and alert, check their airway, breathing, and circulation, and monitor their vital signs. If necessary, perform CPR or rescue breathing.
Do not induce vomiting unless instructed to do so by EMS or a poison control center. Vomiting can be dangerous in some cases, such as when the poison is corrosive or caustic or when the person is unconscious or convulsing.
If the person is vomiting spontaneously, help them turn their head to the side to prevent choking and aspiration of vomit.
If the person has been exposed to toxic fumes or gases, move them to fresh air immediately and provide oxygen if available.
Provide first aid for any additional symptoms or injuries, such as burns, cuts, or seizures.
Do not give the person anything to eat or drink unless instructed to do so by EMS or a poison control center.
Collect any containers, labels, or materials related to the poison and provide them to EMS or the poison control center for analysis.
Remember, the treatment for a person who has ingested a poisonous substance depends on the type and amount of poison, as well as the person’s age, weight, and overall health. It is important to seek prompt medical attention and follow the instructions of EMS and poison control experts. Do not attempt to treat the person on your own, unless instructed to do so by a medical professional.
Question 7: Describe the proper technique for applying a tourniquet to control severe bleeding on an extremity.
A tourniquet is a device used to control severe bleeding on an extremity (arm or leg) when other methods of bleeding control, such as direct pressure or elevation, are not effective. Here are the steps to properly apply a tourniquet:
Choose the right location: Apply the tourniquet about 2-3 inches above the bleeding site, between the wound and the heart. Avoid placing the tourniquet over joints or bony areas.
Apply the tourniquet: Wrap the tourniquet around the limb and tighten it until the bleeding stops. The tourniquet should be tight enough to stop the blood flow, but not so tight that it causes pain or damage to the limb.
Secure the tourniquet: Secure the tourniquet in place using the provided fasteners, such as a buckle or Velcro strap. Make sure the tourniquet is snug and will not come loose during transport.
Mark the time: Note the time the tourniquet was applied. This information will be important for medical professionals to know.
Check for bleeding: Check the wound for any signs of continued bleeding. If the bleeding continues, apply additional pressure to the wound and consider applying a second tourniquet above the first one.
Seek medical attention: Seek immediate medical attention, as a tourniquet is a temporary measure and should only be used as a last resort.
Remember, a tourniquet should only be used in a life-threatening emergency and should be applied correctly to avoid further damage or injury to the limb. Always seek medical attention as soon as possible after a tourniquet is applied.
Question 8: What are the signs and symptoms of a concussion and how should it be treated?
A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head or body that causes the brain to move within the skull. Here are the signs and symptoms of a concussion and how it should be treated:
Signs and symptoms of a concussion:
Headache or pressure in the head
Confusion or feeling dazed
Temporary loss of consciousness
Memory loss or amnesia
Dizziness or balance problems
Nausea or vomiting
Sensitivity to light or noise
Slowed reaction time
Mood changes, such as irritability or sadness
Difficulty concentrating or remembering things
Treatment for a concussion:
If someone has signs and symptoms of a concussion, they should be evaluated by a medical professional as soon as possible.
Until the person can be evaluated, they should rest and avoid activities that could lead to further injury or concussion.
If the person loses consciousness, call emergency medical services immediately.
If the person is conscious, but experiencing symptoms such as confusion or amnesia, stay with them and monitor their condition.
If the person has any visible wounds, such as a cut or bruise, clean the wound and apply pressure to stop any bleeding.
Avoid giving the person any medications without medical supervision.
Follow any instructions from a medical professional regarding activity restrictions, including avoiding physical activity and limiting screen time.
Remember, a concussion can be a serious injury and should be evaluated by a medical professional. Do not delay seeking medical attention if you suspect someone has a concussion. Additionally, avoid returning to physical activity or sports until a medical professional has cleared the person to do so.
Question 9: Explain the proper technique for splinting a suspected broken bone in the arm.
Splinting is a first aid technique used to immobilize a suspected broken bone or joint to reduce pain and prevent further injury. Here are the steps to properly splint a suspected broken bone in the arm:
Assess the situation: Check for any other injuries and ensure that it is safe to provide first aid. If possible, call for emergency medical services.
Support the arm: Use a sling or any other available material to support the injured arm in a position that is comfortable for the person. The injured arm should be supported with the elbow bent at a 90-degree angle, and the forearm supported by the sling.
Check for deformities: Look for any visible signs of a fracture, such as swelling, deformity, or a visible bone protrusion.
Prepare the splint: Prepare a rigid splint by using a stiff material such as a magazine, cardboard, or a wooden board, which should be long enough to extend from the elbow to the wrist. Fold the material to create a U-shape.
Apply the splint: Gently slide the splint under the injured arm, on the inside and outside. Secure the splint in place using bandages or tape, but not too tight that it restricts blood circulation.
Check for circulation: After applying the splint, check for circulation by feeling the pulse below the injured area. If there is no pulse or if the person complains of numbness or tingling, loosen the bandage.
Check for movement: Ask the person to gently wiggle their fingers to make sure they can still move.
Seek medical attention: Seek medical attention immediately to receive further evaluation and treatment of the broken bone.
Remember, splinting is a temporary measure to reduce pain and prevent further injury. The person should be transported to the hospital or medical facility for further evaluation and treatment by a medical professional.
Question 10: Describe the steps to follow when performing CPR on a child who is unconscious and not breathing.
Performing CPR on a child who is unconscious and not breathing is a critical first aid skill that can save a life. Here are the steps to follow when performing CPR on a child:
Assess the situation: Check the child for responsiveness and breathing. If the child is not responding and not breathing, immediately call for emergency medical services and begin CPR.
Position the child: Position the child on their back on a firm, flat surface.
Open the airway: Tilt the child’s head back with one hand while lifting their chin with the other hand to open the airway.
Check for breathing: Look, listen, and feel for breathing for 10 seconds. If the child is not breathing, start CPR.
Perform chest compressions: Use two fingers (for infants) or one or two hands (for children) to perform chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. Compress the chest to a depth of about one-third the depth of the chest.
Perform rescue breathing: After 30 compressions, tilt the child’s head back, lift their chin, and give two breaths into their mouth or nose.
Continue cycles of compressions and breaths: Repeat the cycle of 30 compressions and two breaths until help arrives, the child starts breathing on their own, or you become too tired to continue.
Reassess the child: Every two minutes, recheck for signs of breathing and responsiveness.
Remember, performing CPR on a child can be a physically demanding and emotionally stressful task. If possible, seek assistance from another person and rotate performing compressions and breaths to avoid fatigue. Additionally, it is important to receive proper training in CPR techniques to ensure the best possible outcome for the child.
Test what you learned in this article:
Question 1: Which of the following is NOT one of the top 10 first aid questions addressed in the article?
a) How to handle a fracture
b) How to perform the Heimlich maneuver
c) What to do for a choking victim
d) How to cook a perfect steak
Question 2: What is the difference between first aid and medical care?
a) First aid is given by trained medical professionals, while medical care is given by regular people.
b) First aid is a temporary treatment given to stabilize a patient before they receive medical care, while medical care is ongoing.
c) First aid is only given in emergency situations, while medical care is given for all medical needs.
d) There is no difference between first aid and medical care.
Question 3: Which of the following is a correct first aid technique for controlling bleeding?
a) Apply heat to the wound
b) Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage or cloth
c) Pour alcohol onto the wound to disinfect it
d) Leave the wound uncovered
Question 4: How long should you perform CPR on an unconscious person before stopping to check for signs of life?
a) 10 seconds
b) 30 seconds
c) 1 minute
d) 2 minutes
Question 5: Which of the following is a common misconception about first aid?
a) You should always elevate an injured limb
b) You should never move an injured person
c) You should always apply heat to a muscle strain
d) You should never call an ambulance for a minor injury
Question 6: What should you do if someone is having a seizure?
a) Hold them down to prevent them from moving
b) Stick something in their mouth to prevent them from biting their tongue
c) Move them to a safe place and cushion their head
d) Leave them alone until the seizure stops
Question 7: How should you treat a burn wound?
a) Apply ice directly to the burn
b) Run the burn under hot water
c) Cover the burn with a sterile bandage or cloth
d) Leave the burn uncovered
Question 8: What is the first step in treating a snake bite?
a) Apply a tourniquet to the affected limb
b) Suck the venom out of the wound
c) Wash the wound with soap and water
d) Move away from the snake
Question 9: What is the proper way to perform the Heimlich maneuver?
a) Wrap your arms around the person’s waist and pull up sharply
b) Place your fist just above the person’s belly button and pull inwards and upwards
c) Slap the person on the back until the object is dislodged
d) None of the above
Question 10: What should you do if you suspect someone is having a heart attack?
a) Give them aspirin to chew on
b) Have them lie down and rest
c) Wait to see if the symptoms go away on their own
d) Call 911 immediately
1 – d
2 – b
3 – b
4 – d
5 – b
6 – c
7 – c
8 – d
9 – b
10 – d
The emergency number in the United States is 911 and is valid in all 50 states, as well as in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and other U.S. territories.
In addition to 911, some states have additional emergency numbers that can be used for specific types of emergencies. Here are some examples:
California: 911 for emergencies, 511 for road and traffic conditions, and 800-468-4408 for the California Highway Patrol
Texas: 911 for emergencies, 511 for road and traffic conditions, and *DPS (*377) for the Texas Department of Public Safety
Florida: 911 for emergencies, 511 for traffic information, and *FHP (*347) for the Florida Highway Patrol
New York: 911 for emergencies, #77 for highway emergencies, and 1-800-342-3736 for the New York State Police
Illinois: 911 for emergencies, *999 (*997 for Illinois Tollway) for roadway assistance, and 1-800-782-7860 for the Illinois State Police
Pennsylvania: 911 for emergencies, 511 for traffic information, and 1-800-932-4600 for the Pennsylvania State Police
It’s important to note that emergency numbers can vary by location and it’s always a good idea to check with local authorities to ensure you have the correct number for your area.